Genus Anisomorpha Gray, 1835


Synonymy

Anisomorpha Gray, 1835, Synopsis of the Phasmidae, pp 13, 18.
        [ Type species:  Phasma buprestoides Stoll, 1813, by designation of Kirby, 1904. ]
        Burmeister, 1838, Handbuch der Entomologie, II: 560, 570.
        deHaan, 1842, Bijdragen tot de Kennis der Orthoptera, p 108.
        Saussure, 1859, Rev & Mag Zool, 2nd ser., XI: 61.
        Westwood, 1859, Catalogue of Orthopterous Insects, I: 16.
        Saussure, 1872, Recherches Zoologiques, 6me partie, Livr. 2: 148.
        Stål, 1875b, Recensio Orthopterorum, pp 56, 95.
        Stål, 1875c, Bihang Kongl Svenska Vet-Akad Handl, 3, (14): 19.
        Bolivar, 1888, Mém Soc Zool France, (1888), 1, (1): 141.
        Scudder, 1895, Canadian Ent, XXVII (2): 30.
        Caudell, 1903, Proc United States Nat Mus, XXVI (1335): 880.
        Kirby, 1904c, Synonymic Catalogue of Orthoptera, I: 401.
        Redtenbacher, 1906, Insektenfamilie der Phasmiden, pp 87, 90.
        Rehn, 1909, Catalogue of the Orthoptera of Cuba, p 196.
        Giglio-Tos, 1910, Boll Mus Zool Anat Comp, XXV (625): 7.
        Günther, 1932, Mitt Zool Mus Berlin,18 (2): 226.
        Bradley & Galil, 1977, Proc Ent Soc Washington, 79 (2): 190.
Malacomorpha Rehn, 1906, Bull American Mus Nat Hist, XXII: 113.
        [ Type species:  Malacomorpha androsensis Rehn, 1906, by original designation
            and monotypy. ]
Alloeophasma Redtenbacher, 1906, Insektenfamilie der Phasmiden, pp 118, 126.
        [ Type species:  Anophelepis poeyi Saussure, 1868, by original monotypy. ]
        Rehn, 1909, Catalogue of the Orthoptera of Cuba, p 196.



Description
Body form elongate, stout, cylindrical; surface generally smooth, but sometimes tuberculate.
 
Head elongate; frons with a slight median swelling. Antennae thick, simple, longer than the anterior legs; scape slightly depressed basally; pedicel cylindrical. Compound eyes large; ocelli absent.
 
Pronotum elongate; defensive gland openings present. Prosternum trapezoidal, lateral margins slightly concave. Mesonotum longer than the pronotum. Metanotum transverse and rectangular. Median segment length variable within the genus.
 
Abdominal segments of the male usually quadrate, sometimes a little longer than broad; tergite X generally emarginate apically. Vomer large, apex broad; subgenital plate cup-like, apex rounded; genitalia membranous, dorsal valves fused, without hooks or spines. Cerci large, slightly curved and ventrally-directed.
 
Abdominal segments of the female transverse. Supraanal plate very small, triangular. Sternite VII with an unspecialized praeopercular organ consistently merely of a small swelling on the posterior margin, at times, this swelling may be fairly large; subgenital plate short, not reaching the end of the abdomen, apex rounded. Cerci straight.
 
Anterior femora basally compressed, the four posterior with the lower median carina rounded. Tibiae areolate. First hind tarsomere longer than the next two together.
 
Tegmina and wings usually absent, although remnants may be present; if the tegmina and wings are developed, then the tegmina are short, posteriorly truncate and rounded, the wings are typical of the pseudophasmatids.
 
Sexually dimorphic; the male is somewhat smaller and slenderer than the female.
Geographic distribution.  The genus is found in the southeastern United States, the Yucatan, Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina, the Bahamas, Cuba, Haiti, and Jamaica. Records from Puerto Rico are probably of accidentally imported individuals.
Systematic notes.  In my thesis on the systematics of the Antillean stick insects (Moxey, 1972), I noted that Malacomorpha Rehn was erected for the species M. androsensis Rehn and that the genus was said to differ from Anisomorpha by possessing ocelli. In my examination of the type specimen of androsensis, I found no ocelli, nor any other characters that would distinguish it from a typical Anisomorpha. I noted as well that Alloeophasma Redtenbacher was created for Saussure’s species Anophelepis poeyi and Phasma cubensis, the latter being made a junior subjective synonym of poeyi. My examination of the types of these specimens also showed them to be true Anisomorpha, the only noticeable difference being that the male is fully alate, and the female brachypterous. Bradley & Galil (1977) adopted this synonymy. More recently, Hennemann & Conle (2002) have revised the Tribe Anisomorphini; I have not been able to review this work yet to assess what taxonomic changes will be needed.
Systematic position. 
Superfamily Phyllioidea | Family Pseudophasmatidae | Tribe Anisomorphini

Key to West Indian Species
1. Body apterous, or at most with very small lobiform projections representing tegminal and alar remnants.
2
1'. Body alate, although the wings may be reduced in the female.
5
 
2 (1). Vertex of head smooth.
3
2'. Vertex of head with scattered tubercles.
A. androsensis (Rehn)
 
3 (2). First antennal flagellomere at least 1.5 times the length of the pedicel; tergite X of male apically emarginate.
4
3'. First antennal flagellomere subequal in length to the pedicel; tergite X of male not apically emarginate.
A. udaeus m., sp. n.
 
4 (3). Subgenital plate of female basally with a wedge-shaped carina, apically medially sulcate; tergites II-IX of male bicarinate.
A. jamaicana Redtenbacher
4'. Subgenital plate of female smooth, neither carinate nor sulcate; abdominal tergits of male smooth.
A. urana m., sp. n.
 
5 (1'). Abdominal tergites II-VIII medially bicarinate, the posterolateral angles terminating in acute spines.
A. poeyi (Saussure)
5'. Abdominal tergites II-VIII medially smooth, the posterolateral angles not terminating in acute spines.
A. cyllarus (Westwood)